图书板块图书分类品牌系列图书专题新书上架编辑推荐作者团队
神祇与英雄——趣说希腊神话(上下卷) 侯继迎 编著
家长给孩子辅导希腊神话的必备参考书,大学生了解希腊神话的最佳版本。
ISBN: 9787559835864

出版时间:2021-05-01

定  价:98.00

责  编:邢文桦
所属板块: 文学出版

图书分类: 经典阅读

读者对象: 中小学生家长、大学生。

上架建议: 希腊神话
装帧: 平装

开本: 16

字数: 380 (千字)

页数: 608
图书简介

希腊神话是故事的宝库、人类的瑰宝。它孕育出盛极一时的古希腊文化这一西方文化的摇篮,所以,要了解西方文化,希腊神话不可不读。但同时,希腊神话体系庞大、盘根错节,如不能理顺其人物关系、故事勾连,只能留下人名难以记忆、情节支离破碎之印象,必然破坏它的整体美感!基于此,为了让读者清晰明白地了解希腊神话、切实感受它的无穷魅力,本书试图用生动通俗的语言、环环相扣的逻辑、前后注解的方法、图文并茂的手段,抽丝剥茧层层为您展开这一美丽画卷。

作者简介

侯继迎,男,哲学博士,山东财经大学马克思主义学院教师,西南大学马克思主义理论博士后研究人员。出版个人专著一部,合作专著三部,并在《哲学动态》《教学与研究》《东岳论丛》《理论探讨》《西南师范大学学报》等刊物上发表学术论文数篇。

图书目录

上卷

序·····················································································································1

第一编 两个神族·························································································1

一、五大创世神·····················································································2

二、十二泰坦神·····················································································4

三、神王更迭·························································································7

四、奥林匹斯十二主神·········································································19

(一)宙斯 ·····················································································20

1. 宙斯与卡利斯托 ·································································22

2. 宙斯与伽倪墨得斯 ·····························································25

(二)赫拉 ·····················································································27

1. 赫拉与宙斯的性事纷争 ·····················································30

2. 宙斯与赫拉的斗智斗勇 ·····················································31

(三)波塞冬 ·················································································32

(四)哈迪斯 ·················································································36

(五)雅典娜 ·················································································42

1. 雅典娜的身世 ·····································································42

2. 雅典娜的惩罚 ·····································································45

(六)阿尔忒弥斯 ·········································································48

1. 阿尔忒弥斯出生 ·································································48

2. 阿尔忒弥斯上位 ·································································51

3. 阿尔忒弥斯与阿克泰翁 ·····················································53

(七)阿波罗 ·················································································55

1. 阿波罗的成功上位 ·····························································55

2. 阿波罗的坎坷情路 ·····························································59

(八)赫淮斯托斯 ·········································································66

(九)阿瑞斯 ·················································································69

(十)阿佛洛狄忒 ·········································································75

1. 维纳斯的爱情 ·····································································76

2. 丘比特的爱情 ·····································································80

(十一)赫尔墨斯 ·········································································88

1. 赫尔墨斯成功逆袭 ·····························································88

2. 赫尔墨斯与赫尔塞 ·····························································93

3. 赫耳玛佛洛狄忒与萨耳玛西斯 ·········································95

(十二)狄俄尼索斯 ·····································································97

1. 狄俄尼索斯的出生与抚养 ·················································97

2. 狄俄尼索斯的漫游与凯旋 ·················································101

第二编 一位泰坦·························································································107

一、普罗米修斯造人与盗火·································································108

二、潘多拉的魔盒·················································································111

三、普罗米修斯的被缚与解放·····························································113

四、洪水灭世与重新造人·····································································118

五、“英雄时代”·················································································121

第三编 三大世家·························································································127

一、珀尔修斯世家·················································································128

(一)宙斯与伊俄 ·········································································128

(二)兄弟相残 ·············································································133

(三)宙斯与达娜厄 ·····································································137

(四)珀尔修斯的伟大功绩 ·························································138

1. 力斩美杜莎 ·········································································139

2. 石化阿特拉斯 ·····································································142

3. 拯救安德洛墨达 ·································································143

4. 误杀外祖父 ·········································································146

(五)赫拉克勒斯 ·········································································149

1. 宙斯与阿尔克墨涅 ·····························································149

2. 赫拉克勒斯的降生与成长 ·················································154

3. 赫拉克勒斯的十二功绩 ·····················································159

4. 赫拉克勒斯的求婚之路 ·····················································191

5. 赫拉克勒斯与翁法勒女王 ·················································195

6. 赫拉克勒斯的复仇之路 ·····················································198

7. 赫拉克勒斯的封神之路 ·····················································203

8. 赫拉克勒斯的后代子孙 ·····················································206

二、卡德摩斯世家·················································································208

(一)宙斯诱拐欧罗巴 ·································································208

(二)卡德摩斯创基业 ·································································211

(三)安菲翁建忒拜城 ·································································217

(四)尼俄柏遭到报应 ·································································220

(五)俄狄浦斯的悲剧 ·································································223

1. 弑父娶母 ·············································································223

2. 流落异乡 ·············································································233

三、忒修斯世家·····················································································239

(一)雅典建城及王位更迭 ·························································240

(二)普洛克涅和菲罗墨拉 ·························································244

(三)厄瑞克透斯的女儿们 ·························································247

1. 普洛克里斯与刻法罗斯 ·····················································247

2. 克瑞乌萨与阿波罗 ·····························································251

3. 俄瑞堤伊亚和玻瑞阿斯 ·····················································260

(四)忒修斯出世 ·········································································262

(五)忒修斯回乡 ·········································································265

(六)忒修斯认父 ·········································································268

(七)忒修斯杀牛 ·········································································270

(八)忒修斯执政 ·········································································275

(九)忒修斯交友 ·········································································278

(十)忒修斯娶妻 ·········································································280

(十一)忒修斯二婚 ·····································································281

(十二)忒修斯抢妻 ·····································································283

(十三)忒修斯之死 ·····································································384

下卷

第四编 四次行动·························································································287

一、夺取金羊毛·····················································································288

(一)西绪福斯 ·············································································290

(二)阿塔玛斯 ·············································································294

(三)克瑞透斯 ·············································································296

(四)伊阿宋回乡 ·········································································299

(五)阿耳戈远征 ·········································································301

1. 偶遇女儿国 ·········································································304

2. 误杀好国王 ·········································································306

3. 两英雄离队 ·········································································307

4. 杀掉赛拳手 ·········································································309

5. 解救菲纽斯 ·········································································310

6. 成功过撞岩 ·········································································311

7. 遭遇铜怪鸟 ·········································································312

8. 救下堂兄弟 ·········································································313

9. 美狄亚出场 ·········································································315

10. 美狄亚赠药 ·······································································318

11. 伊阿宋斗牛 ·······································································322

12. 金羊毛到手 ·······································································324

13. 美狄亚杀弟 ·······································································325

14. 喀耳刻净罪 ·······································································326

15. 塞壬的歌声 ·······································································327

16. 墨西拿海峡 ·······································································328

17. 美狄亚完婚 ·······································································329

18. 利比亚遇险 ·······································································331

19. 杀死塔罗斯 ·······································································332

20. 伊阿宋回乡 ·······································································333

(六)伊阿宋复仇 ·········································································334

(七)伊阿宋负心 ·········································································336

(八)美狄亚杀子 ·········································································340

二、卡吕冬狩猎·····················································································342

(一)“杀猪大会”与墨勒阿革洛斯之死 ·································343

(二)阿塔兰忒和希波墨涅斯 ·····················································347

三、七雄攻忒拜·····················································································351

(一)波吕尼刻斯借兵 ·································································351

(二)七雄攻打忒拜城 ·································································356

(三)安提戈涅葬兄长 ·································································363

(四)后辈英雄攻忒拜 ·································································367

(五)阿尔克迈翁弑母 ·································································370

四、特洛伊战争·····················································································373

(一)迈锡尼 ·················································································374

1. 阿伽门农的曾祖父——坦塔罗斯 ·····································375

2. 阿伽门农的祖父——珀罗普斯 ·········································378

3. 阿伽门农的父亲——阿特柔斯 ·········································380

(二)斯巴达 ·················································································386

(三)特洛伊 ·················································································389

(四)金苹果之争 ·········································································392

1. 珀琉斯的身世 ·····································································392

2. 忒提斯的婚礼 ·····································································395

3. 帕里斯的裁决 ·····································································397

(五)帕里斯诱拐海伦 ·································································400

(六)战前动员 ·············································································406

(七)出征受挫 ·············································································412

1. 献祭伊菲革涅亚 ·································································412

2. 误伤忒勒福斯 ·····································································417

3. 抛弃菲罗克忒忒斯 ·····························································419

(八)战争前九年 ·········································································420

1. 正面交锋 ·············································································420

2. 陷害战友 ·············································································422

3. 清理外围 ·············································································424

4. 谈判失败 ·············································································424

(九)战争第十年 ·········································································426

1. 阿喀琉斯的愤怒 ·································································426

2. 阿伽门农的试探 ·································································431

3. 两个丈夫的决斗 ·································································432

4. 整整一天的战斗 ·································································435

5. 特洛伊人的胜利 ·································································444

6. 阿喀琉斯拒绝和解 ·····························································447

7. 希腊人夜袭敌营 ·································································448

8. 特洛伊再次胜利 ·································································450

9. 帕特洛克罗斯之死 ·····························································459

10. 阿喀琉斯重返战场 ···························································465

11. 赫克托耳之死 ···································································474

12. 赫克托耳的葬礼 ·······························································477

13. 阿玛宗女王之死 ·······························································481

14. 埃塞俄比亚国王之死 ·······················································483

15. 阿喀琉斯之死 ···································································487

16. 大埃阿斯之死 ···································································489

17. 欧律皮罗斯之死 ·······························································492

18. 帕里斯之死 ·······································································495

19. 盗取帕拉斯神像 ·······························································499

20. 木马屠城计 ·······································································501

附:奥德修斯返乡·················································································509

(一)奥德修斯的遭遇 ·································································510

1. 美酒与忘忧果 ·····································································510

2. 智斗独眼巨人 ·····································································511

3. 风神埃俄罗斯 ·····································································516

4. 莱斯特律戈涅斯人 ·····························································518

5. 女巫喀耳刻 ·········································································519

6. 前往哈迪斯冥国 ·································································524

7. 海妖塞壬 ·············································································527

8. 墨西拿海峡 ·········································································528

9. 神祇的圈套 ·········································································530

10. 仙岛思乡 ···········································································531

11. 海神的报复 ·······································································535

12. 瑙西卡公主 ·······································································537

13. 在阿尔喀诺俄斯的宫中 ···················································539

14. 回到伊塔卡 ·······································································544

(二)伊塔卡的变故 ·····································································546

1. 求婚者胡作非为 ·································································546

2. 召开公民大会 ·····································································549

3. 寻访皮洛斯和斯巴达 ·························································552

(三)奥德修斯复仇 ·····································································554

1. 忒勒玛科斯归来 ·································································555

2. 会见欧迈俄斯 ·····································································556

3. 父子相认 ·············································································559

4. 回到王宫 ·············································································563

5. 夫妻相见 ·············································································567

6. 诛杀求婚者 ·········································································572

7. 夫妻相认 ·············································································580

8. 大团圆结局 ·········································································582

后 记···············································································································587

序言/前言/后记

在现代人的心目中,神话属于丰富多彩的想象,生活才是不容置疑的真实,二者截然不同、泾渭分明。这种“自以为是”的想法导致的结果就是——一步步地远离祖先思考问题和感受事物的方式。这种“远离”同时也是成年人对自己童年的“背叛”,因为作为个体人的童年时代恰恰就是整个人类远古时代的缩影。成年之后,我们之所以怀念童年,是因为它承载了太多的美好回忆:无忧无虑、天真无邪,以及属于“无知”的那份纯真与美丽,于是,“怀旧”便成为成年人的一种“通病”。

“一个成人不能再变成儿童,否则就变得稚气了。但是,儿童的天真不使成人感到愉快吗?他自己不该努力在一个更高的阶梯上把儿童的真实再现出来吗?”[ 《马克思恩格斯选集》第2卷,人民出版社,2012年版,第711-712页。]在没有时间机器的情况下,神话是把我们带回童年、带到远古的唯一方式。而要真切地实现这一点或者说真实地感受这一切,我们要做的最重要的事情就是让那活灵活现的想象打倒谨慎行事的理性,清空横亘在感觉器官与万物自然之间的一切,贴近大地、亲近海洋、聆听飞鸟……总之,拥抱自然,或者更准确地说,“嵌入”自然。在这里,“我”不是主体,自然界也不是客体,因为“我”没有从自然中抽离,自然也没有把“我”当作星外来客,“天地与我并生,而万物与我为一”(《庄子·齐物论》)。在此一境遇中,任何人走在林中、来到河边、漫步田野之时,遇到威力无边的巨神或美丽可爱的仙女都不会感到一丝诧异。

每个民族都有自己的神话,而希腊神话却能从中脱颖而出,那是因为“有粗野的儿童和早熟的儿童。古代民族中有许多是属于这一类的。希腊人是正常的儿童。”[ 《马克思恩格斯选集》第2卷,人民出版社,2012年版,第712页。]具体说来:

首先,古希腊人有着雄奇的想像力,他们的思想犹如脱缰的野马插上了飞翔的翅膀,因此其创造的神话堪称绚丽多姿、美轮美奂。但与此同时,另一方面,希腊神话尽管像其它神话一样也有荒谬的情节却又基本合乎常理,因为它注重铺垫,每一个人物都有坚实的背景,令人害怕而又不合理性的东西在希腊神话中毫无容身之所,这就使得每一篇神话、每一个故事都给人一种真实可信、触手可及的感觉。

其次,因其流传久远、版本众多,每个民族的神话都会表现出一定的杂乱性,但与其他民族的神话相较,希腊神话则有着谱系更为分明、辈分更为清晰的特点。当然,希腊神话也并非本来如此,它是北方亚欧大陆印欧语游牧民族入侵者[ 主要是涤荡高度发达的克里特文明、开创相对落后的迈锡尼文明的阿卡亚人。]粗犷勇武的神话、南方地中海世界精致优美的神话和东方富有神秘主义色彩的神话交流融合、氤氲化生的结果,这不得不说是名副其实的“百川归海”。在这一过程中,处于“黑暗时代”[ 公元前11世纪,北方多利亚入侵者摧毁了迈锡尼文明,希腊历史由此重回野蛮状态,直到公元前8世纪,城邦制的希腊文明崛起,这一时期被称谓“黑暗时代”。因“荷马史诗”成型于这段时间,故又称“荷马时代”。]末期的游吟诗人和处于城邦文明兴起时期的系统叙事诗[ “系统叙事诗”大约盛行于公元前7—6世纪,是以神话和英雄传说为内容的古希腊史诗。叙事诗将分散凌乱的希腊民间神话传说联系为彼此相关的有机体系,并且填补和充实了荷马史诗和赫西俄德作品中的许多忽略处与空缺处。(参见赵林:《西方宗教文化》,武汉大学出版社,2005年版,第21页。)]作者进行了大量的编纂、整理与改造工作,功不可没。

最后,也是最重要的一点,古希腊游吟诗人与传奇作家完成了一件极其伟大的事情——把一个无比恐惧、让人望而生畏的世界变成了一个美丽诱人、让人心所向往的天堂。希腊人在神话上的一大革新是按照他们自己的形象——人的形象来塑造神祇,之前各族人民的头脑中根本就没有产生过类似这样的念头。古埃及的猫头女身像、狮身人面像;美索不达米亚的鸟头人身像、牛头狮身像等等都体现了艺术家们决心要极力创造出世人见所未见、闻所未闻、与任何生物都不相像的“纯想象”神祇,以供世人顶礼膜拜。希腊神话中也有稀奇古怪的形象——狮身人面斯芬克斯、蛇发女妖戈耳工、九头蛇许德拉等等,但这些怪物并不产自希腊本土,而是来自埃及,且都是作为配角、负面角色出现在故事当中,其存在的价值基本就是充当各位英雄豪杰成就伟业的垫脚石。希腊人也创造,但他们的创造并不完全依靠头脑中稀奇古怪的想象,其欲望在周围世界的现实事物之中就得到了满足:艺术家看到体魄强壮的运动员,于是创造了威力无穷的宙斯;看到风华正茂的年轻人,于是创造了动作敏捷的赫尔墨斯;看到风姿绰约的貌美少女,于是创造了美丽动人的维纳斯……总之,希腊的一切艺术和思想都深深地扎根于现实人类世界。他们是神,因此他们大权在握、高高在上、发怒时确实十分可怕;但他们又来自于人,因此他们平易近人、非常亲切、生活中又可随意取笑。男神固然比男人更强大、女神固然比女人更美丽,但他们的性格弱点、道德缺陷却也更加明显与突出:宙斯十分好色,设计出各种各样的办法企图对妻子掩盖自己的风流韵事,却每次都露出马脚,狼狈不堪;赫拉妒意十足,想出各种各样的巧妙又显卑鄙的计策惩罚情敌,却每次都无法最终得逞。这就是希腊神话所构筑的尽管也有惩罚与恐惧但又极富人情味儿的世界,在这个世界里发生的故事具有娱乐性,但又不失教育性,二者协调的如此完美,到了让人叹为观止的程度。

具体说来,“神人同形同性”是希腊神话最重要的特征。所谓“神人同形同性”,简单地说,即是指神不仅拥有人的健美形体,而且具有人的七情六欲,因此亦可称之为“神仙凡人化”。分开来看:“同形”——古希腊人按照人的形象创造了神,并认为神就是人的最完美的体现。“希腊人竭力以美丽的人体为模范,结果竟奉为偶像,在地上颂之为英雄,在天上敬之如神明。”[ 【法】丹纳:《艺术哲学》,傅雷译,生活·读书·新知三联书店,2016年版,第57页。]也就是说,神是具有超凡能力的有血有肉的生灵,他们具有人的形体,只是比人身材更高大、肌肉更发达、体魄更健壮、容貌更俊美!男神是比男人更男人的男人,他们一个个魁梧健壮,堪称男人的标准、男人的典范;女神是比女人更女人的女人,她们一个个性感妩媚,堪称女人的标准、女人的楷模。“同性”——神祇也需要吃饭喝水,虽然他们吃的是仙丹神食、喝的是玉液琼浆;神祇也有人的理智与情感、忧愁与烦恼,虽然他们高高在上,统治人类。更为重要的是,神之所以称之为神并不是因为他们的道德境界有多么高尚,相反,人所具有的弱点神都具有,而且表现的比人更为突出、更为典型,他们寻花问柳、沾花惹草;贪婪自私、尔虞我诈;巧取豪夺、偷盗奸淫,无所不用其极。但所有这些非但没有减弱反而极大地增强了希腊神话的魅力,因为它少了矫揉与造作,多了纯净与率真,一切都是无拘无束的真情流露、自由奔放的大胆表达,仿佛一下子让我们回到了超越一切道德准则与规范的童年时代,想起了无伤大雅的恶作剧、找到了天真烂漫的纯净美。正因为如此,希腊神话才称得上是人类文化史上一束不可多得的艺术奇葩。

希腊神话是故事的宝库、人类的瑰宝,它孕育出盛极一时的古希腊文化,而古希腊文化又是整个西方文化的摇篮,所以,要了解西方文化,希腊神话不可不读。但同时,希腊神话体系庞大、盘根错节,如不能理顺其人物关系、故事勾连,只能留下人名难以记忆、情节支离破碎之印象,必然破坏它的整体美感!基于此,为了让读者清晰明白地了解希腊神话、切实感受它的无穷魅力,本书试图用生动通俗的语言、环环相扣的逻辑、前后注解的方法,抽丝剥茧层层为您展开这一美丽画卷!

希腊神话大体分为“神的故事”和“英雄传说”两个部分。本书共四编——第一编:两个神族;第二编:一位泰坦;第三编:三大世家;第四编:四次行动。其中,“一位泰坦”指普罗米修斯,“两个神族”指宙斯之前的旧神族——泰坦神族、以宙斯为首的新神族——奥林匹斯神族,这两编属“神的故事”;“三大世家”指珀尔修斯世家、忒修斯世家、卡德摩斯世家,“四次行动”指夺取金羊毛、卡吕冬狩猎、七雄攻忒拜、特洛伊战争,这两编则属“英雄传说”。这种“一、二、三、四”的方式便于大家从整体上把握全书内容和希腊神话的构成。当然,在本书的最后部分,还附上了“奥德修斯返乡”的故事,因为它既属于“特洛伊战争”的后续,又对整个希腊神话不可或缺。

另外,需要说明两点:

第一,随着时间的推移,希腊神话在传播的过程中不断被加工改造,因而同一个人物出现不同身世、同一个故事出现不同版本的情况经常发生。有些人物、有些故事,就算是时间差不了多少的荷马与赫西俄德之间也有不小的差异,更不用说后来了。现在相当多的希腊神话著作采用的方式是尽量将一个人物的各种身世、一个故事的各种版本一并列举出来,这当然有助于读者充分掌握材料,但同时也不可避免地会影响人物的统一性、故事的连贯性。以免使初学者陷入更大的混乱,本书在展开的过程中除十分必要,基本只选取其中一个比较符合前后逻辑的人物身世、故事版本来叙述,以保证其发展脉络的顺畅性。

第二,希腊神话涉及的人物众多、名字较长且有诸多重名现象,导致许多读者虽有了解希腊神话的强烈愿望,但在阅读相关书籍的过程中得到的感受却是:名字记不住,看了后面忘了前面,这样一来,诸神之间、英雄之间、诸神与英雄之间的关系稀里糊涂、一团乱麻,最后只得放弃。本书采用“前后注解的方法”来解决这一问题,即前面故事中涉及到的人物后面可能要做详细讲述,后面故事中涉及到的人物前面可能已经出现过,在这种情况下,都会作出相应注释,标出参考页码,以便读者前后对照,加深对人物的印象。

“序”要说的就是这些,现在让我们开始回到那无限遥远的时代,来感受神奇瑰丽的希腊神话带给大家的无穷魅力吧……

编辑推荐

在阅读希腊神话相关书籍的过程中,读者不仅觉得人名难记,故事散乱,而且对神祇之间、英雄之间、神祇与英雄之间的关系也感觉一头雾水。本书语言幽默风趣,人物关系清晰,故事情节连贯,让你欲罢不能。

精彩预览

第一编 两个神族

希腊神话中,在我们所熟悉的以宙斯为代表的奥林匹斯神族之前,还有一个更为古老的泰坦神族,它们一起构成新旧“两个神族”。泰坦神族的统治被奥林匹斯神族暴力推翻,实现了新旧神谱的更迭。

一、五大创世神

话说,宇宙幻化之初、天地分裂之前,原是一片混沌,英文唤作Chaos,汉语音译“卡俄斯”。若问这“卡俄斯”乃何方神圣?它不可描述、无边无际、毫无秩序,可谓宇宙各元素融为一体、尚未分化的原初状态。如要作个类比,就像中国古人所说的“元气未分,混沌为一”、“天地未生,混沌一气”。若再要说的形象点,也就类似现在的重度雾霾天。

这卡俄斯别的本事没有,却有一项“生命繁衍”的特异功能,它闲来无事、一时兴起以“无性繁殖”的方式从自身内部分裂出五个孩子:大地之神该亚、地狱之神塔耳塔洛斯、爱欲之神厄洛斯、黑暗之神厄瑞玻斯、黑夜女神倪克斯,这就是鼎鼎大名的五大创世神,他们构成最古老的神祇,世界由此发端,希腊神话的美丽画卷也由此慢慢铺陈展开……

1、该亚:女,大地之神。随后,她将成为故事的主角,所以在此暂且省略对她的介绍。

2、塔耳塔洛斯:男,地狱之神。他身处大地的最底端,后来成为一所监狱,专门关押妖魔怪物、囚禁犯上作乱的神祇。除此,他还是有罪之人死后灵魂的归宿。

3、厄洛斯:没有性别,爱欲之神。因为他(她)既代表男性对女性的欲望,又代表女性对男性的欲望,当然还有男性对男性、女性对女性的欲望,所以搞的他(她)自己反倒不男不女。别看性别搞不清楚,但这位厄洛斯威力却着实不小,他“能使所有的神和所有的人销魂荡魄呆若木鸡,使他们丧失理智,心里没了主意。”[ 【古希腊】赫西俄德:《工作与时日 神谱》,张竹明、蒋平译,商务印书馆,2016年版,第31页。]正是他(她)催生了诸神之间的爱慕之情,进而可以享受两性欢愉并摆脱无性繁殖的枯燥状态。

4、厄瑞玻斯:男,黑暗之神。位于大地与冥府之间,也是地下世界的一个部分。人死后,灵魂便首先穿过黑暗,再到达冥府。

5、倪克斯:女,黑夜之神。她住在冥国的入口或冥河处,代表夜之本体。

身为爱欲之神的老三出生之前,大家根本不懂得男女情爱为何物、肉体结合又有何妙处。现在有了厄洛斯不断催情,五妹倪克斯又和四哥厄瑞玻斯住的那么近,于是他们经常鬼混在一起,日久生情,“黑暗”加“黑夜”就有了月黑风高的苟且之事。完事之后,倪克斯神奇地发现自己的肚子大了,一口气生下三位古老的神祇——光明之神埃忒耳、白昼女神赫墨拉以及冥河艄公卡戎。除此之外,这位倪克斯自己还生育了:死神塔那托斯、睡神许普诺斯、不和女神厄里斯、欺骗女神阿帕忒、命运三女神摩伊赖等等。

这么多名字,一时哪能记得住?后面故事中露面的时候再说吧,他们即使出现也大多是“打酱油”的角色。但有一组神还是要引起我们的注意,那就是几乎在所有的故事中都没有正面现身但又无处不在的冷酷无情、铁面无私的命运三姐妹——小妹克罗托负责纺织生命之线,二姐拉刻西斯负责丈量生命之线,大姐阿特罗波斯则随时准备用剪刀剪断生命之线。在希腊神话中,命运不是外在的异己因素,而是处于自身之中,主宰一切、不可抗拒的神秘力量!凡是命定的东西,一定会发生。不管你是庸庸碌碌的凡人、勇武好战的英雄,还是永生不死的神祇,都无法逃避这把时刻悬在头上的达摩克利斯之剑。

二、十二泰坦神

五大创世神的名字不大好记,但我们现在也没必要都记住他们。在接下来要讲的希腊神话中,名字最好记的老大“该亚”才是主角,至于那四个名字后面带“斯”的只不过是“龙套演员”而已,用到的时候再说吧!

接下来,让我们以热烈的掌声欢迎大神“该亚”登场……

卡俄斯混沌一片,尚无神格,该亚堪称世间第一神,享受着大地母亲的万分荣耀,但再牛的神也有孤单寂寞冷的时候,每逢此时,她就找弟弟妹妹聊聊天。不过,该亚后来发现聊了还不如不聊,因为他们都是什么地狱、黑暗、黑夜之类的,聊天只能给自己带来负面情绪。一开始,该亚打心眼里瞧不起那位不男不女、没有性别的老三厄洛斯,可是环视整个世间就他们这么几个神,实在是没什么选择余地。于是,她就尝试着和爱欲之神聊了几次,结果这一聊不要紧,不知不觉中竟撩拨起了爱的冲动和欲望,这可怎么办啊?那几位她都看不上,爱欲之神又没有性别。

百爪挠心的感觉实在不好受,急的上蹿下跳的该亚一生气、一狠心、一跺脚,我自己来——自己生、自己养、自己用。于是,作为大地女神的她靠单性生殖的方式生出了天空(乌拉诺斯)、海洋(蓬托斯)、山脉(乌瑞亚)、大自然(宁芙仙女[ 宁芙:山川、水泽、海岛、树林、草场等野外成精的众仙女的统称。她们是大自然的精灵,相貌美丽动人、性格活泼可爱,虽然会死,但不会老,有着天山童姥般的容颜。]),总之大地上的一切都诞生了。这时,该亚对儿子们下手了,先从老大开始吧:爱欲之神促使她“嫁”给了自己的大儿子——天空之神乌拉诺斯,其实这里谈不上“嫁”,就是赤裸裸的肉体结合。

此时的我们也许会不由得惊呼一声:啊!母子结合?没搞错吧?这不是地地道道的乱伦嘛!各位读者,在这里暂且允许您惊讶一下,但等您接着往下看希腊神话时就再也不会感到惊讶了,因为您会发现对希腊诸神来说,血亲婚配根本不是事儿![ 关于这一问题的理论论述,可参看恩格斯的《家庭、私有制和国家的起源》一书。]再说了,创世之初,找遍整个宇宙就有限的那么几个神,不将就也实在是没办法啊!实际上,我们得承认,由卡俄斯的无性生殖到该亚的单性生殖再到该亚和乌拉诺斯的两性生殖,已经是巨大的进步了。

乌拉诺斯、该亚夫妇结合后生出六个怪物:三个独目神和三个百臂神。独目神不是我们在海盗影片中经常看到的瞎了一只眼的独眼龙形象,他们只在额头中间长了一只大环眼;百臂神也不像中国神话中有一千只手却只有一个头的千手观音,而是成套出现——一百个手臂五十个脑袋。《神谱》有言:“他们(百臂巨人——引者注)身材魁梧、力大无穷、不可征服。在天神和地神生的所有子女中,这些人最可怕。”[ 【古希腊】赫西俄德:《工作与时日 神谱》,张竹明、蒋平译,商务印书馆,2016年版,第32页。]兄弟六个皆是长相怪异、面目狰狞、身材高大的巨人。看到这里,我们只能默默地说一句:近亲结婚,害“神”不浅啊!

不过,这两口子并没有气馁,六个不行,再来它一打,于是他们又生了十二个孩子——六男六女,也就是我们比较熟悉的十二“泰坦”[ “泰坦”也就是“无比巨大”之意,巨轮“泰坦尼克号”的名字即源于此。]。他们分别是六位男性泰坦:俄刻阿诺斯、科俄斯、许珀里翁、克利俄斯、伊阿珀托斯、克洛诺斯;六位女性泰坦:忒亚、瑞亚、忒弥斯、谟涅摩叙涅、福柏和忒堤斯。

1、俄刻阿诺斯:男,大洋之神。他与自己的妹妹、沧海女神忒堤斯结合,生育了三千男性河神及三千海洋女神。在后面的神话故事中我们会发现,河神、海神等一切水神都具有非常强大的变身本领。[ 周作人在他翻译的《希腊神话》一书的注释中说:“水性最是变动无常,所以能变化成各种形状。”(【古希腊】阿波罗多洛斯:《希腊神话》,周作人译,长江出版社,2018年版,第221页。)]而且我们还会发现,这从四面八方包围陆地的三千海洋女神给众多好色男神真是提供了十分丰富的资源!

2、科俄斯:男,智力之神。他见哥哥娶了妹妹,自己也赶快下手娶了一个——月之女神福柏。两口子生下两个女儿——无星无月的“暗夜神”勒托和星光璀璨的“星夜神”阿斯忒里亚。后来,宙斯的咸猪手伸向了这对姊妹花,性格火辣的妹妹阿斯忒里亚断然拒绝,生性软弱的姐姐勒托没能逃离魔掌,为宙斯生下一对龙凤胎——大名鼎鼎的第三代月神阿尔忒弥斯和第三代太阳神阿波罗。

3、许珀里翁:男,第一代太阳神。一共就这几个妹妹,再不出手就晚了,于是他选择了妹妹忒亚,生育了黎明女神厄俄斯、第二代太阳神赫利俄斯和第二代月神塞勒涅。

4、克利俄斯:男,生长之神。这位老兄见哥哥们都向亲妹妹下手,面露鄙夷之色,批评他们这样做是不对的!起码也得找个关系远点的吧,于是他娶了欧律比亚。欧律比亚是谁?前面说过,该亚与儿子的结合先从老大乌拉诺斯开始,后来她又和二儿子蓬托斯搞在一起,生了几个儿女,其中之一就是这个欧律比亚。这么说来,克利俄斯的这个老婆实际上也就是母亲和叔叔的私生女。他们两口子生下珀耳塞斯、阿斯特赖俄斯和帕拉斯几个子女。

5、伊阿珀托斯:男,灵魂之神。此时,老大哥俄刻阿诺斯的女儿们已长大成人,俗话说女大十八变,越变越好看,这叔叔一看众多侄女长的这么漂亮,干脆自己先在里面挑一个吧,省的便宜了别人。就这样,三千海洋女神之一的克吕墨涅成了他的妻子,后来证明这位大神的眼光还真是不赖,克吕墨涅给他生下了四个赫赫有名的泰坦儿子:阿特拉斯、墨诺提俄斯、普罗米修斯和厄庇墨透斯,后面的故事中他们将悉数登场。

6、忒亚:女,璀璨之神,许珀里翁之妻。

7、瑞亚:女,时光之神。小老弟克洛诺斯娶她为妻,后来这两口子可发达了,因为丈夫克洛诺斯推翻了父亲乌拉诺斯的统治成为第二代神王,瑞亚也就升格为第二代神后。夫妇两个生下了六个孩子,分别是后来的灶神赫斯提亚、农产女神得墨忒尔、天后赫拉、冥王哈迪斯、海神波塞冬和第三代神王宙斯。

8、忒弥斯:女,正义之神。嫁给了宙斯,在宙斯的七个老婆中排行老二,生时序三女神。

9、谟涅摩叙涅:女,记忆之神。嫁给了宙斯,在宙斯的七个老婆中排行老五,与宙斯同寝九昼夜生下掌管文艺和科学的缪斯九女神。

10、福柏:女,第一代月神,科俄斯之妻。

11、忒堤斯:女,沧海之神,俄刻阿诺斯之妻。

12、克洛诺斯:男,天空之神,瑞亚的丈夫,后来篡位成功,坐上了第二代神王的宝座。

此时,乌拉诺斯、该亚是第一代神王、神后,他们与子女十二泰坦及其后代共同统治着整个宇宙。

三、神王更迭

该亚是大地,乌拉诺斯是天空,天空俯视大地、大地仰望天空,按理说应该是比较和谐的两口子。但问题是:当时天地一体,尚未分离,天空覆盖着大地,二者大小一样、完全叠合,每一块土地都有一块天空粘合其上。除此之外,更为关键的是,乌拉诺斯的性欲极其旺盛,每天无所事事,只知道在大地的怀抱里无休止地发泄兽欲。该亚顿时觉得丧失了存在感,完全成了老公泄欲和生子的工具,此时的地母对于自己当初没耐得住寂寞生了这么个儿子一事真是连肠子都悔青了。

不止如此,当该亚给老公生下第一批孩子——三位独目巨人和三位百臂巨人的时候,乌拉诺斯就抱怨不已,嫌弃老婆生的这些孩子质量太次,都是些丑陋无比的怪胎。面对这种抱怨,该亚尽管在背后也流了不少伤心的眼泪,但看了看奇形怪状的孩子们还是选择默默地忍了。当第二批孩子——十二泰坦神出生后,该亚发现孩子的质量明显提升了:眼睛都是两个、头也成了标配的一个、胳膊的数量虽然还是有点多,但一眼看过去也基本能数清了,心想这下老公该满意了吧!但没有任何情感经验的她哪里知道,男人一旦不喜欢你了,怎么做都是错的。面对孩子,乌拉诺斯满脸的憎恶和愤怒,接下来对老婆就是一顿奚落和嘲笑:“你看看你生的这孩子,不还是些丑陋、庞大的怪物嘛!?孩子这么难看,你让我这一代神王的脸往哪里搁?你再看看我,是多么地英俊潇洒、风流倜傥,我真怀疑这孩子是野种,看见他们我就觉得自己头上的帽子发绿,还是给你还回去吧!让他们重新回炉可能还会好点。”于是,乌拉诺斯不容分说又将这些孩子塞回到妻子该亚的肚子里。

你想想,面对这样的丈夫,作为妻子的该亚能不生气吗?第一,你整天压在我身上发泄兽欲,让我年纪轻轻就对夫妻生活产生了恐惧。第二,孩子长得难看也不能光怨我,孩儿他爹也有责任啊!第三,怀疑我出轨?我倒是想找情人,也得有机会啊,你一刻不离在我身上压着,我出的哪门子轨啊?还有那更可恶的第四点,十月怀胎容易嘛?超大婴儿好生嘛?好不容易一个个生下来了,你倒好又给塞回去了,让我忍受两次痛苦。

该亚越想越气,这日子没法过了,连个娘家也没有的她无处诉苦,决定进行无情的报复。但自己能力有限,关键时刻还得靠儿子,她趁乌拉诺斯睡着时,用腹语对肚子里的泰坦孩子们诉起了苦,并添油加醋地诉说丈夫如何侮辱了他们母子,鼓励他们联合起来反抗父亲的统治并将其杀掉。听到这些话,孩子们吓坏了:乌拉诺斯巨大无比、力大无穷,整天压在母亲的身上,想要打败他可不那么容易,起来造反可不是闹着玩的。该亚一看这情形,必须出狠招了,遂告诉儿子们:“不管你们中的哪一个带头除掉那可恶的父亲,他将有权继承王位,成为新一代神王。”这个诱惑实在是太大了,最小的也是野心最大的儿子克洛诺斯站了出来,答应帮助母亲推翻父亲的统治。

母子二人制定了一个极其狡诈阴险的计划……

该亚告诉小儿子:“就在前不久我发现自己又怀孕了,因为这次是在夫妻二人刚刚大吵一架之后怀的孕,心情不好导致怀的是个怪胎——一块巨大的金刚石,我已在体内将其打造成一把锋利无比的镰刀,你如此这般,大事必成。”

克洛诺斯依计行事,他在母亲的肚子里手持镰刀,埋伏在乌拉诺斯和该亚交合的地方窥伺着机会。这样的机会不难等,天天都有。当父亲又一次在母亲身上发泄淫威的时候,“克洛诺斯从埋伏处伸出左手,右手握着那把有锯齿的大镰刀,飞快地割下了父亲的生殖器”[ 【古希腊】赫西俄德:《工作与时日 神谱》,张竹明、蒋平译,商务印书馆,2016年版,第33页。]。乌拉诺斯被阉割的那一瞬间感觉不对,疼痛得吼叫一声,轰然而起,天地连接的纽带断了,从此分离,成了“太监”的乌拉诺斯永远固定在世界的最高处,再也不敢下来。

神是永生不死的,但乌拉诺斯失去了生殖能力,也就丧失了天父的资格。

紧接着,克洛诺斯顺势把父亲的生殖器用力扔向远处,在空中飞的过程中许多精血滴到大地之上,其实也就是该亚身上,因为她就是大地女神。这样一来,该亚躺着中枪了,又孕育出怪物巨人族、复仇三女神和自然神女们。而那个生殖器最后落到了大海里,激起了很多泡沫,《神谱》的说法是“一簇白色的浪花”[ 【古希腊】赫西俄德:《工作与时日 神谱》,张竹明、蒋平译,商务印书馆,2016年版,第33页。]。其实哪里是什么“浪花”,分明就是乌拉诺斯的精液,从这些精液中诞生了我们极其熟悉的金发碧眼、天使面孔、魔鬼身材的阿佛洛狄忒(意即“浪花所生的女神”)[ 赫西俄德说,因为女神是“从男性生殖器产生的,故又名‘爱阴茎的’”。(【古希腊】赫西俄德:《工作与时日 神谱》,张竹明、蒋平译,商务印书馆,2016年版,第34页。)]。当然作为中国人更为熟悉的是她的罗马名字——维纳斯,克洛诺斯这一“扔”无疑完成了由极丑到极美的转换。

第一代神王乌拉诺斯的统治就这样被自己的小儿子推翻了,大事即成,克洛诺斯赶紧招呼哥哥姐姐们从母亲的体内出来,十二位泰坦、三位独眼巨人和三位百臂巨人终于可以伸展一下腰身、呼吸一下新鲜空气了。理所当然,富有造反精神的克洛诺斯被推举为新一任武林盟主——也就是继乌拉诺斯之后的第二代神王。

现在,再也没有那可恶的丈夫压在身上整天强暴自己了,该亚顿时觉得轻松了许多。但没过多长时间,她又浑身不自在,心痒难耐,有一种说不出来的感觉。细想一下,原来爱神厄罗斯又上身了,不断催生着她的情欲。于是,这位大地女神又找来第二个儿子海神蓬托斯与她共赴云雨,生下了表征大海各种属性的五位儿女:海之友善——涅柔斯、海之奇观——陶玛斯、海之愤怒——福耳库斯、海之危险——刻托、海之力量——欧律比亚。

克洛诺斯无心去管老娘的私生活,他登基坐殿没多长时间,就娶了姐姐瑞亚为妻,变得和父亲一样整日里花天酒地、作威作福、专横残暴。但这种奢靡的享乐生活只是徒有其表,因为神王深知他的独眼和百手兄弟们的强大,认为他们的存在是对自己王位的潜在威胁。因此,惴惴不安的神王终于设毒计将六个哥哥抓住并囚禁于塔耳塔洛斯地狱。但这样做并不能使克洛诺斯彻底安心,因为他还有一个心结无法打开——那就是父亲乌拉诺斯在离开大地之前发下的一个诅咒始终在耳边回响:“你这个忤逆之子的命运和我一样——也终将被自己的儿子所推翻。”这个心腹事使克洛诺斯耿耿于怀、茶饭不香。最后,神王为了避免这可怕的诅咒,终于做出一个残忍的决定:把妻子瑞亚给他生下来的孩子全部吃掉——目的是断子绝孙,以绝后患。

瑞亚为克洛诺斯生了五个孩子,全都在分娩后即被父亲一口吞下。想想就知道,老公当着妻子的面如此残暴地吃掉自己身上掉下来的肉,当妈的能不伤心嘛!?因此,在她第六次怀孕时,决心要保全此子。等到快要临盆之际,瑞亚找了个借口和丈夫大吵一架,于是我们熟悉的场面出现了:老婆对老公撂下一句狠话——“不和你过了,以后自己在家煮泡面吃吧”,一跺脚回娘家了!该亚这当妈的一看闺女挺着个大肚子回来了,忙问怎么回事。瑞亚抱住母亲哭诉一番。老妈一听这还了得,这不是耽误我抱外孙嘛!仔细一想,对了,不止外孙,还同时是孙子呢——女婿克洛诺斯也是自己的儿子啊!姜还是老的辣,当天晚上,该亚就给闺女出了个主意,让女儿依计行事。

第二天,瑞亚生下一个可爱的男婴,他就是未来的第三代神王——大名鼎鼎的宙斯。既是奶奶又是姥姥的该亚将婴儿抱到了克里特岛上,交给瑞亚的侍女和祭司抚养。

第三天,克洛诺斯撑不住了,来到丈母娘家负荆请罪。一进门先认错,承认都是因为自己不好惹得媳妇生气,以后再也不会了,接着神王就迫不及待地问老婆是不是生了。该亚一听这哪里是关心媳妇啊,心里惦记的分明是儿子——看来泡面吃起来还是不如孩子口感好啊!该亚不动声色,到里屋把女儿瑞亚叫了出来,劝女儿孩子都给人家生了,还能怎么着啊,赶紧跟丈夫回家吧!瑞亚遂告别母亲,抱着“孩子”装出一副极不情愿的样子和克洛诺斯走了,在路上神王一把就将妻子怀里的襁褓抢了过来,看也不看把它一口吞了下去,这才心安。他哪里知道襁褓里包的根本不是婴儿,而是一块石头。

在克里特岛,瑞亚的侍女——伊达山宁芙仙女用蜂蜜和羊奶喂养小宙斯,祭司枯瑞忒斯跳起战舞发出声响掩盖他的啼哭,以防被克洛诺斯发现。

在众女仙的精心抚养和照料下,宙斯在岛上很快长成一个英俊健壮的青年。生有三千个女儿的大洋神俄刻阿诺斯[ 俄刻阿诺斯就是前面说的十二泰坦中的老大,参见本书第 页。]非常喜欢他,于是便把最富有智慧的女儿墨提斯嫁给他做妻子。瑞亚觉得已为人夫的宙斯是时候知道自己的身世了,就找机会向儿子倾诉了她的良苦用心。听了母亲的经历、父亲的残暴、兄弟姐妹的悲惨遭遇,年轻气盛的宙斯气愤不已,拍着胸脯发誓说一定要推翻父亲的统治。但冷静过后,仔细一想,父亲克洛诺斯手里那把曾经割下爷爷乌拉诺斯生殖器的镰刀可不是好惹的,让人看了实在是胆寒啊!

遇到为难的事找老婆,人家墨提斯可是一位拥有无穷智慧和预知能力的聪慧女泰坦。贤内助一出场,这都不是事儿!女神为宙斯配了一小瓶具有催眠和呕吐作用的药水,并教给他如此这般……

在神王克洛诺斯的高压统治下,大家敢怒不敢言,表现出一副天下太平的景象。他对自己能想出把孩子们吞到肚子里这个办法也颇为得意,所以整日里无所事事就以喝酒来消磨时光。瑞亚建议给丈夫配备一个专门为他倒酒的仆人,克洛诺斯自然非常高兴,于是宙斯顺利来到父亲身边。宙斯聪明伶俐,很快便博得克洛诺斯的欢心和信任。终于有一天,趁父亲不注意,他将老婆墨提斯配的神奇药水混入酒中,服侍克洛诺斯喝下。很快,克洛诺斯便昏睡不醒,在睡梦中还呕吐不止,原来吃进肚中的五个孩子随同食物一起都吐了出来,他们依次是赫斯提亚、得墨忒尔、赫拉、哈迪斯、波塞冬,当然还包括那块被当作孩子吞食的一直没有消化的石头。神是永生的,不但不死,而且在克洛诺斯的肚子里面也不影响生长,所以现在他们皆已长大成人,其实力也已今非昔比。

宙斯将哥哥姐姐们召集在一起,说明了要推翻父亲统治的想法,大家举双手赞成。但就这么几个神毕竟势单力孤,具体怎么造反,众说纷纭、莫衷一是。这时,宙斯的贤内助、智慧的墨提斯又站了出来,她提出“三步走”的具体战略步骤:第一,建立革命根据地;第二,抓紧结婚生孩子;第三,团结一切可以团结的力量。

老婆指示已下达,话不多说,抓紧落实:第一步,宙斯在希腊东北部忒萨利亚地区找到了一座云雾缭绕的荒山——奥林匹斯山,把它当作革命根据地。话说,这奥林匹斯山本来是有主的,它的主人是俄刻阿诺斯的女儿——三千海洋神女之一欧律诺墨和丈夫俄菲翁的地盘,但后来这可怜的小两口被叔叔克洛诺斯无故抢了宅子、占了地,赶回到海洋之中,奥林匹斯也就成无主荒山了。宙斯就在这里建立了他的大本营,开宗立派,称为奥林匹斯派。第二步,宙斯兄弟几个为革命工作“不辞辛劳”地忙活着结婚、找情人,造“神”工程开始了。有人会问,现在生孩子赶趟嘛?这一点大可放心,人家可是神啊,那孩子生下之后“见风长”,没几天就成年了,有效地充实了革命队伍。第三步,宙斯开始进行舆论造势,策反敌营:凡是现在投降过来的,既往不咎,革命胜利后保证你官升一级、工资翻倍;凡是反抗到底、死不悔改的,革命成功之后打入塔耳塔洛斯监狱,万世不得翻身。权力和金钱的诱惑果然有效,首先站出来表态的就是十二泰坦中的老大俄刻阿诺斯。想想也是,宙斯可是他从小就看上的乘龙快婿,老丈人怎么能不帮女婿呢!再说了,之前自己的女儿欧律诺墨被克洛诺斯打下奥林匹斯山的账还没算呢,新仇旧恨一起报吧!他这一站队可不得了,那可是当时神界最大的家庭,宙斯的大舅子小舅子们——三千男性河神、大姨子小姨子们——三千海洋女神都来了。第一个来入伙的就是俄刻阿诺斯的大女儿斯提克斯一家:包括丈夫帕拉斯[ 帕拉斯是十二泰坦之一克利俄斯和欧律比亚的儿子,参见本书第 页。]、两个女儿“竞争女神”泽洛斯和“胜利女神”尼刻、两个儿子“强力神”克拉托斯和“暴力神”比亚。为了表彰斯提克斯的英明决策,也为了表明自己说话算数,宙斯令“强力”和“暴力”兄弟俩伴随左右,成了他的贴身保镖和忠实仆人。更为重要的是,自此以后,宙斯尊斯堤克斯为“守誓河”——即无论是谁,在必须发下誓言的时候,彩虹女神、神的使者伊里斯[ 伊里斯是海之奇观陶玛斯(参见本书第 页)和三千海洋神女之一厄勒克特拉的女儿。]就下到冥界,用金杯装来斯堤克斯的河水,众神面对此水起誓。违背誓言的神,将会被罚九年有期徒刑——期间不得吃神食、不得饮仙酒、不得参加聚会,独自浑浑噩噩、恍恍惚惚、孤苦伶仃、混天熬日,并被剥夺一切政治权利。

大家一看,投降果然是个不错的选择,于是陆续有些神——比如正义女神忒弥斯、记忆女神谟涅摩绪涅等也归顺了宙斯。其中特别值得一提的还有大名鼎鼎的普罗米修斯[ 普罗米修斯是十二泰坦之一伊阿珀托斯和三千海洋女神之一克吕墨涅的儿子,参见本书第 页。],由于他具有未卜先知的能力,知道这场战争的最终胜利者是宙斯,所以就提前倒戈。跟着他一起来入伙的还有弟弟厄庇墨透斯,他没有主见,哥哥一说也就跟着来了,而普罗米修斯的两个哥哥——阿特拉斯、墨诺提俄斯——则不听那一套,仍然留在克洛诺斯的阵营。

经过一番招兵买马,奥林匹斯派的实力不断壮大,宙斯觉得造反时机已经成熟,于是他公然对父亲——正在统治天国的第二代神王克洛诺斯宣战,这就是希腊神话中著名的泰坦之战。在这场战争中,泰坦神以忒萨利亚以南的俄特律斯山为根据地,而宙斯和他的兄弟姐妹们则占据着忒萨利亚以北的奥林匹斯山,双方激战了十年,打的昏天黑地,几乎要毁掉整个宇宙,但始终难分胜负,这种胶着的战况令宙斯愁眉不展。聪明的普罗米修斯早就知道打败克洛诺斯的办法,但他之前一直不说,因为他认为只有当战争打到这种程度时才能凸显自己进言的重要性。这位泰坦神对满面愁容的宙斯说:“现在战争双方势均力敌、难分伯仲,如果能有一支生力军加入,那胜利肯定是属于我们的。”宙斯深表赞同,但问题的关键是战争打到这个份上,哪来的生力军啊?普罗米修斯不紧不慢地说道:“这生力军不是别人,就是你那威力无比的六个大伯——被克洛诺斯囚在塔耳塔洛斯的独眼巨人族和百臂巨人族。”宙斯一听恍然大悟,赶紧派人前去拯救他们,并许以优厚的条件。兄弟六人到了地面之后,兴奋之极,他们好久没有见过天日了,宙斯又用一顿神界大餐盛情招待了诸位伯伯。为了报答这份恩情,再加上他们本来就对无故将其囚禁的克洛诺斯恨之入骨,所以心甘情愿为宙斯卖命。以工匠技艺闻名的独眼巨人们为奥林匹斯神打造了威力无比的武器——一根可以发射雷霆、闪电和霹雳的权杖送给宙斯,有排山倒海之威力的三叉戟送给波塞冬,而给了哈迪斯一副隐形头盔和一把双股叉;骁勇善战的百臂巨人则在战场上奋勇作战,堪称以一敌百——因为他们都有一百只手。新生力量的加入立马打破了平衡、改变了剧情,宙斯最终战胜了克洛诺斯。

胜者为王败者寇,为免除后患,宙斯依葫芦画瓢,用那把祖传的金刚石镰刀将老爹克洛诺斯直接阉割,并把那些顽固不化的泰坦族神灵囚禁在塔耳塔洛斯。为了避免这些人逃走再次兴风作浪,他命令手下在监狱四周建起青铜墙壁,再令三个百臂巨人负责看守。宙斯的这三个百臂伯父虽然说又一次回到了冥界,但他们的地位变了——由囚犯直接升级为监狱长,闲着没事的时候可以随便提审、虐待几个犯人,让泰坦们也尝尝当年你们作威作福的时候兄弟我受的什么罪,所以三位倒也十分乐意。至于独目巨人,因为他们手艺精巧、吃苦耐劳,就留在了宙斯的儿子火神赫菲斯托斯[ 关于赫菲斯托斯这位大神的故事,参见本书第 页。]的铁匠铺里作帮手。

江山如此多娇,伟大的胜利之后到了决定谁来作王的时候了,宙斯和他的两个哥哥——哈迪斯、波塞冬[ 克洛诺斯吐出来的孩子一共五个,但那三个——赫斯提亚、得墨忒尔、赫拉都是女儿身,在男权社会没有登基坐殿的权利。]互不相让,他觉得自己在泰坦之战中的贡献无人能及,理应当老大,但那二位争辩说他们的贡献也不小,而且论年龄,哪能轮的到你?就这样,大小谈判、圆桌会议开了无数次,不但毫无结果,反而是剑拔弩张,光桌子就拍坏了好几张,眼看兄弟之间又要开战,那个狡猾的普罗米修斯又一次及时出现了。他提出一个自古至今屡试不爽,无比民主和绝对公平的办法——拈阄。抓到谁是谁,命中注定,愿赌服输,三分天下——大海、冥界、天庭,大地则由三者共同管理,掌管天庭者为号令天下的武林盟主。结果,运气还算不错的波塞冬抓到了大海——成为海神;宙斯颤颤巍巍地展开纸团看到“天庭”俩字赶紧揉了揉眼睛,不敢相信自己真的成了第三代神王;这结果使哈迪斯一下泄了气,自认倒霉的他只能统管那阴暗的冥界——成为冥王。最高统治者宙斯志得意满,论功行赏之后终于得以安然地统治世界了,他和众兄弟姊妹一同居住于巍峨的奥林匹斯山宫殿中,那里从不下雨,也无风雪,众神整日畅饮美酒,纵情享乐。

然而,好日子总是短暂的,没过多少年,新的反叛势力又来攻打奥林匹斯山了。他是谁呢?就是地母该亚和弟弟地狱之神塔耳塔洛斯生的怪物提丰。前文提到,该亚是看不上这个弟弟的,别说嫁给他了,连聊天的兴趣都没有,所以她宁可独自生孩子,然后再嫁给自己的儿子。现在怎么又和弟弟鬼混在一起了呢?其实,该亚和塔耳塔洛斯的结合谈不上任何感情因素,只有实用目的,那就是为了报复。原来,该亚当初保护宙斯活下来,只是为了抱孙子,没想到这孙子长大成人后竟然把她那些“可爱的”、孤单寂寞时要履行丈夫职责的泰坦儿子们都给灭了,还把他们囚禁在暗无天日的塔耳塔洛斯那里,这就说不过去了,所以她一直怀恨在心。后来,该亚想出了一个办法,打通弟弟塔耳塔洛斯这一环节,因为泰坦神都在他那里关押着呢!怎么打通呢?塔耳塔洛斯身处冥界,老光棍一个,这就有办法了——出卖色相。结果如何呢?对于色相,塔耳塔洛斯倒是来者不拒,但放人免谈,因为他向来胆小怕事,否则也不至于连个媳妇都不敢出去抢,至今仍是光棍一根,像他这样的哪敢得罪众神之王啊!?这下可把该亚气坏了,把自己赔上了,事也没办成,还无处诉苦,等于吃了个哑巴亏。不过后来事情有了转机——该亚发现这个兄弟倒是弹无虚发,那一次以后竟然怀孕了,生下来一看还是个三胞胎——巨蟒皮同、怪物提丰和小妹厄喀德娜。这下该亚扑哧一笑、转悲为喜,为什么呢?因为她对老二提丰太满意了,这个儿子简直可以说是战斗力爆表。

提丰天生异象:人身蛇尾、浑身披着坚硬的鳞甲,身体高度超过所有山峰、横向到达大地东西两边,长着一百个头、比百手巨人还多出一倍,一百张嘴中喷出灼热剧毒的火焰,并发出响雷般如牛叫、如狮吼、如犬吠等各种可怕的声音。

该亚一看,这哪里还用得着你塔耳塔洛斯啊,我的儿子就直接把奥林匹斯神给灭了。于是,在母亲该亚的受命下,提丰来到奥林匹斯山下挑战,扬言要开历史的倒车——消灭宙斯,将泰坦巨神从冥渊中拯救出来,将天地重新融合,归于混沌。

提丰挥动风暴之槌狂吼厉啸,宙斯派下山来平定叛乱的大神都被击成重伤;他又冲入海中,激起滔天巨浪,将海神波塞冬的战车拽出水面。山上诸神哪里见过这等场面,心中一想反正天下也轮不到自己来做,犯不着为宙斯丢了老命——神虽然是不死的,但被关在提丰他爹那里也不是好玩的,因此他们便化为各种动物四散奔逃,不见了踪影。但神王宙斯不打不行啊,提丰就是冲着他的王位来的。他只有坚守鏖战,独自面对这个怪物,躲闪着它的致命火焰,并用手中的权杖不断地对其放出闪电和霹雳。打了一段时间,提丰渐感不支,因为他体型太大飞不起来,只能在地面,而宙斯则在天上,你个子再高,也得仰面喷火,说实话颈椎有点受不了了。于是,提丰对宙斯说:“你仗着居高临下的优势才能和我鏖战到现在,如果你也在地面上肯定占不到任何便宜。”一听这话,宙斯表示严重不服,谁怕谁啊,“刷”一下就下来了,和提丰来了个摔跤式贴身肉搏。岂知这下中了提丰的诡计,大家不要忘了他可是人身蛇尾,下半身一直盘踞在地面上。宙斯不明就里,一下就被提丰牢牢缠住了,他的霹雳闪电棒远程攻击可以,肉搏战就无法发挥作用了。这可怎么办啊?情急之下,宙斯往腰里一摸,突然摸到了那把祖传的“金刚石镰刀”,锋利无比的刀子一下割伤了提丰。提丰疼痛难忍,宙斯趁机逃脱了他的魔掌。这次宙斯可学乖了——我就在空中往下轰你,再也不下来了。受伤的提丰又经过一番苦战,不支倒地,宙斯趁机将其压在西西里岛的埃特纳火山之下。

提丰虽被压在山下,但他后来还是找了个媳妇。老婆是谁呢?就是同胞妹妹厄喀德娜,同为人身蛇尾的两个怪物不用媒婆出面就走到了一起。这两口子生下的孩子个个怪异、个个有名:双头犬欧特鲁斯、三头狗刻耳柏洛斯、九头蛇许德拉、喷火怪兽喀迈拉、涅墨亚狮子、百头巨龙拉冬、科尔喀斯恶龙、狮身人面兽斯芬克斯、透墨索斯恶狐、啄食普罗米修斯内脏的恶鹰等众多妖魔。在后面的神话中,正是这个怪兽军团成为各路英雄豪杰降妖除魔的对象,好像他们的出现就是专门给英雄们的成名之路来提供垫脚石的。

提丰的暴动被平定后,各位大神没事人儿似得又回到了奥林匹斯山上,一通溜须拍马,大赞宙斯的威猛无敌,宙斯不计前嫌,又过起了太平日子。

若干年后,不甘失败的该亚又一次怂恿她的巨人后代——就是乌拉诺斯的生殖器被克洛诺斯割下来扔到大海的过程中滴下来的血在大地上孕育出的怪物巨人族——反抗宙斯。但在宙斯的凡人儿子赫拉克勒斯[ 关于赫拉克勒斯的故事,参见本书第 页。]与众神的共同奋战之下,最终巨人族败北,也被打入了地狱。

这之后,就再没有发生过大规模武装反抗宙斯统治的事情了。

四、奥林匹斯十二主神

以宙斯为首的众神因其居住在希腊东北部忒萨利亚地区的奥林匹斯山,所以被称为奥林匹斯神族。这一神族共有十二位主神,下面我们就分别来看看他们的履历和故事:

(一)宙斯

希腊名:宙斯;罗马名:朱庇特

宙斯是第三代众神之王,奥林匹斯十二神之首。他是雷神,掌握着使用万钧雷霆的大权,其圣鸟为雄鹰。根据这一点,以后大家欣赏以希腊神话为题材的西方油画作品时,凡是看到一个胡子拉碴的男人身边有一只雄鹰,基本就可以断定这个老头子是宙斯了。

宙斯率领诸神打败了其父克洛诺斯为首的泰坦神族,成为新一代神王,这一丰功伟业值得世人称颂。但除此之外,在整个希腊神话中,坐天下的宙斯所干的事情基本就是玩弄各种阴谋诡计诱拐少女或劫掠美女了,他四处留情,却大多始乱终弃。

首先,宙斯有七位妻子:

第一位:智慧女神墨提斯,俄刻阿诺斯与忒堤斯之女,就是给宙斯配神奇药水令克洛诺斯又困又吐的那位。

第二位:正义女神忒弥斯,十二泰坦中的老八,和宙斯生下时序三女神。

第三位:海洋女神欧律诺墨,又是俄刻阿诺斯与忒堤斯之女。可曾记得欧律诺墨和丈夫俄菲翁被克洛诺斯赶下奥林匹斯山的情节?[ 参见本书第 页。]宙斯帮小姨子报了仇,但条件是以身相许,就这样他生生地拆散了夫妻二人。老婆被宙斯看上了,俄菲翁敢怒不敢言,带着绿帽子悻悻地走了。欧律诺墨为宙斯生下“顾盼之间含情脉脉,令人销魂荡魄”[ 【古希腊】赫西俄德:《工作与时日 神谱》,张竹明、蒋平译,商务印书馆,2016年版,第54页。]的美惠三女神。

第四位:丰产女神得墨忒尔,被克洛诺斯吞下去的孩子之一,宙斯的姐姐,她为宙斯生下女儿珀尔塞福涅。

第五位:记忆女神谟涅摩绪涅,十二泰坦中的老九,和宙斯一口气在床上温存了九昼夜,生下缪斯九女神。

第六位:暗夜女神勒托,十二泰坦中科俄斯与妹妹福柏的女儿,生下后来的月神阿尔忒弥斯和太阳神阿波罗。

第七位:天后赫拉,被克洛诺斯吞下去的孩子之一,宙斯的姐姐。生火神赫菲斯托斯、战神阿瑞斯、青春女神赫柏和生育女神埃勒提亚。

这是宙斯的七位妻子,除了她们之外,宙斯的情人就不计其数了,举例如下:

宙斯与风雨女神迈亚,生下神使赫尔墨斯

宙斯与忒拜公主塞墨勒,生下酒神狄俄尼索斯

宙斯与阿尔戈斯公主达娜厄,生下英雄珀耳修斯

宙斯与迈锡尼公主阿尔克墨涅,生下大力神赫拉克勒斯

宙斯与斯巴达王后勒达,生下英雄波吕丢刻斯和绝世美女海伦

宙斯与腓尼基公主欧罗巴,生下米诺斯、拉迪曼提斯和萨耳珀冬

……

宙斯这些情人和私生子的名字暂且不用记,后面的故事中他们都会作为主角一一出场。至于宙斯到底有多少个情人,又有多少个私生子,只能说注定永远是个谜了。

风流成性的宙斯有一个好处,就是不像那些道貌岸然的伪君子,他从来不对别人掩饰自己的好色本性。无奈何,家里有个河东狮——赫拉,使他又不得不偷偷摸摸,在找情人这件事情上绞尽脑汁,玩弄各种诡计欺瞒赫拉,和老婆斗智斗勇。于是乎,这两口子就上演了诸多情节曲折、险象环生的戏剧桥段,这不仅给文艺复兴及其后来的油画大师们提供了丰富的素材,也为我们茶余饭后平添了许多饶有趣味的谈资。

奥林匹斯众神变化多端,其中尤以宙斯为甚。这一技术被宙斯熟练地运用到泡妞这一毕生追求的伟大事业中去,他除了变成老鹰[ 宙斯变成老鹰劫走了美少年伽倪墨得斯(本书第 页)和美少女埃癸娜(本书第 页)。]、布谷鸟[ 宙斯变成布谷鸟诱骗了姐姐赫拉(本书第 页)。]、天鹅[ 宙斯变成天鹅占有了美女勒达(本书第 页)。]、公牛[ 宙斯变成公牛诱拐了美女欧罗巴(本书第 页)。]等各种动物之外,还曾化作云[ 宙斯化作乌云霸占了美女伊俄(本书第 页)。]、雨[ 宙斯化作黄金雨临幸了美女达娜厄(本书第 页)。]等自然现象来引诱无知少女,总之,在这件事情上宙斯可谓脑洞大开、无所不用其极。所以说,在以希腊神话为题材的油画作品中,只要看到美女身边依偎着一个色迷迷的牲畜,基本就可以断定是老宙了。

以好色而著称的宙斯为后世提供了许多美妙绝伦的泡妞故事,由于它们大都是某个完整故事中的一个桥段,所以放在后面叙述。在这里,让我们首先了解两则小故事,稍微展现一下老宙的色狼风采:

1、宙斯与卡利斯托

为了把妹,宙斯不只变化成动物、云雨之类,他还曾经变成女人……

阿耳卡狄亚国王吕卡翁有一个美丽动人的女儿卡利斯托,她是宙斯之女——月亮神、狩猎神、处女神阿尔忒弥斯[ 关于阿尔忒弥斯这位大神的故事,参见本书第 页。]的一个侍从。她一身猎装,肩挎神弓,手持长矛,始终追随在女神左右,而且卡利斯托也像她的女主人一样发誓守着处女之身,终生不嫁。也正因为此,阿尔忒弥斯非常喜欢她。

一个炎热的夏日,卡利斯托陪伴着阿尔忒弥斯在林中狩猎,女神安排她去追赶一头受伤的野兽,美丽的女孩沿着野兽的足迹来到一片林间空地。她感到又热又累,便躺在一棵大树的绿荫下休息,不知不觉竟睡着了。

万能的宙斯时刻注意着人间的每一寸土地,生怕错过一个美女。他偶然瞥见了离女儿的狩猎地不远的草地上躺着的卡利斯托,这时他才发现原来女儿的侍从中竟然有这么一个美人胚子,这样的机会怎能放过?于是,宙斯“对自己说:‘这回我偷偷干一回,我老婆肯定不会知道,即使知道了,挨一顿骂也值得,也值得!’”[ 【古罗马】奥维德:《变形记》,杨周翰译,上海人民出版社,2016年版,第59页。]想到这里,他隐去神祇的痕迹、变身凡人来到卡利斯托身边,轻轻地将其抱在怀中生怕把她惊醒。但卡利斯托还是醒了,睁眼发现正躺在一个男人怀中,可把她吓坏了,自己对男人从来没有感过兴趣,平时连看都不看一眼,羞愧难当的姑娘马上站起来逃走了。

宙斯这个情场老手在男女之事上多聪明啊,一眼就看透了美女的心思。他眉头一皱,心生一计——你不是不喜欢男人嘛,那我就变性。宙斯摇身一变,变身为女儿阿尔忒弥斯,直接在卡利斯托奔跑的前方不远处等着心上人自投罗网。慌里慌张的卡利斯托哪能辨出真假,一看到女主人可算放心了,顿时觉得有了依靠,一下子扑进了“阿尔忒弥斯”的怀中,向女神诉说起刚才的经历。卡利斯托主动投怀送抱,正中神王下怀。宙斯开始不由自主地在女孩身上乱摸,卡利斯托似乎感觉不对,试图再次从宙斯怀里挣脱。宙斯知道已经瞒不下去了,还是轻车熟路——霸王硬上弓来的干脆。可怜的卡利斯托没有一点思想准备,她拼命反抗,可是无济于事。恢复原形的宙斯毕竟是无所不能的,卡利斯托虽然打猎时有降龙伏虎的本领,但哪有能力逃出宙斯的魔掌,好事得逞之后,老宙心满意足地返回了天宫。

无辜失去处女之身的卡利斯托只能把眼泪往肚子里咽,默默地回到女神和女伴们身边。这种难为情的事无处倾诉,平日里活波开朗的卡利斯托变的沉默寡言。更糟糕的是,百发百中的宙斯让她怀孕了。不管如何遮掩,终于有一次,大家像往日一样在露天公共澡堂——泉水里——洗澡时这个秘密还是被发现了。一贯以“心眼小”著称的阿尔忒弥斯气坏了,她觉得卡利斯托这个她平日里最喜爱的侍从背叛了她,女神听不进女孩的任何解释,将她逐出了领地。

无依无靠的卡利斯托孤身一人一边哭泣一边漫无目的地向前走去,她来到一片树林的深处,觉得自己再也走不动了,就随便搭了一个茅草屋住了下来。没过多长时间,便生下一个男孩——阿耳卡斯,自此,母子二人相依为命、艰难度日。

一代神王宙斯固然厉害——可以变成女人诱拐无辜少女,可宙斯家里那位——天后赫拉也不是吃素的。她最终还是洞悉了这件事情的真相,特别是当她得知丈夫的这个小三连儿子都有了的时候,更是气的暴跳如雷,心想我管不住老公还办不了你嘛,发誓一定不会放过这个“狐狸精”——卡利斯托,让她知道知道我一代天后的手段。

古往今来,不管是人还是神,在正室看到小三的那一刻,都会丧失理性。天后赫拉来到卡利斯托居住的茅草屋,一看见她就破口大骂,泼妇本性尽显,不容分说,上去就抓住了卡利斯托的头发,恶狠狠地说:“你到处去勾引别人的老公,不就是仗着年轻貌美嘛,我要给你毁容!”说话间,赫拉暗施法术,瞬间把天使般的卡利斯托变成了一头大熊。手段得逞,赫拉心满意足地回到了天庭。诸位可能会问,小三和老公生的私生子呢?赫拉难道就这么忍了?不要着急,阴险毒辣的中年妇女哪能放过他?更大的阴谋在后面呢!

可怜的卡利斯托现在只能发出像熊一样的哀号,想起当年,手拿弓箭,在树林里追逐猛兽的场景,再看看现在的自己,却成了猎人的目标,整天东躲西藏,永无宁日,真是欲哭无泪、肝肠寸断。

光阴荏苒,失去母亲但仍不明真相的阿耳卡斯在附近猎人的抚养下已长大成人,像他的母亲卡利斯托一样,成长为一名英俊潇洒的出色猎手。在赫拉的精心安排下,有一天,猎人阿耳卡斯手持长矛、身背弓箭正在林中寻觅猎物。忽然看见一头母熊缓缓向他走来,不用问这只熊正是阿耳卡斯的母亲卡利斯托。她一下认出了儿子,但又无法呼喊他的名字,只能不顾一切地向阿耳卡斯扑来,想拥抱一下朝思暮想的孩子。可阿耳卡斯无论如何也不会想到这头大熊竟是自己的亲生母亲啊!英勇的猎人见大熊向他扑来,麻利地向后一闪,举起长矛,用尽全身力气向猎物刺去。

就在惨剧正要上演的那一刻,剧情发生了翻转。洞悉一切的宙斯看到了这一幕,自己变性骗过卡利斯托和她发生一夜情之后就忙着去找别的女人了,没想到儿子都这么大了,现在儿子要杀害亲生母亲,这还了得!他略施神法,把他们的儿子变成了一只小熊,这样一来,阿耳卡斯便立刻认出了母亲。

宙斯用脚趾头也能想出这必定是家里那位母老虎想出的毒辣诡计,为使母子二人免得再遭赫拉毒害,宙斯将他们升到天界,成为天上的大熊星座和小熊星座。

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